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Avenues to Ancient Civil War
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Author Carsten Hjort Lange

From the outbreak of the Second Punic War in 218 to the Social War in 91, the Romans had prolonged debates about the changing nature of warfare, culminating in Rome’s first civil war in 88 BCE. The Second Punic War was a war of survival against Rome’s great enemy, Carthage, but also saw Rome’s subject-allies rebel on a large scale, equalling an internal war within the polity of Rome.