Published in Stories by Research Graph on Medium
Author Amanda Kau

A novel compression technique ensuring comparable performance with 70% less parameters Author Amanda Kau ( ORCID : 0009–0004–4949–9284) Introduction The sizes of large language models (LLMs) have been steadily increasing over the last few years.


Computation and Language (cs.CL)Artificial Intelligence (cs.AI)Machine Learning (cs.LG)Quantum Physics (quant-ph)FOS: Computer and information sciences

CompactifAI: Extreme Compression of Large Language Models using Quantum-Inspired Tensor Networks

Authors Andrei Tomut, Saeed S. Jahromi, Abhijoy Sarkar, Uygar Kurt, Sukhbinder Singh, Faysal Ishtiaq, Cesar Muñoz, Prabdeep Singh Bajaj, Ali Elborady, Gianni del Bimbo, Mehrazin Alizadeh, David Montero, Pablo Martin-Ramiro, Muhammad Ibrahim, Oussama Tahiri Alaoui, John Malcolm, Samuel Mugel, Roman Orus

Large Language Models (LLMs) such as ChatGPT and LlaMA are advancing rapidly in generative Artificial Intelligence (AI), but their immense size poses significant challenges, such as huge training and inference costs, substantial energy demands, and limitations for on-site deployment. Traditional compression methods such as pruning, distillation, and low-rank approximation focus on reducing the effective number of neurons in the network, while quantization focuses on reducing the numerical precision of individual weights to reduce the model size while keeping the number of neurons fixed. While these compression methods have been relatively successful in practice, there is no compelling reason to believe that truncating the number of neurons is an optimal strategy. In this context, this paper introduces CompactifAI, an innovative LLM compression approach using quantum-inspired Tensor Networks that focuses on the model's correlation space instead, allowing for a more controlled, refined and interpretable model compression. Our method is versatile and can be implemented with - or on top of - other compression techniques. As a benchmark, we demonstrate that a combination of CompactifAI with quantization allows to reduce a 93% the memory size of LlaMA 7B, reducing also 70% the number of parameters, accelerating 50% the training and 25% the inference times of the model, and just with a small accuracy drop of 2% - 3%, going much beyond of what is achievable today by other compression techniques. Our methods also allow to perform a refined layer sensitivity profiling, showing that deeper layers tend to be more suitable for tensor network compression, which is compatible with recent observations on the ineffectiveness of those layers for LLM performance. Our results imply that standard LLMs are, in fact, heavily overparametrized, and do not need to be large at all.

Computation and Language (cs.CL)FOS: Computer and information sciences

A Survey on Knowledge Distillation of Large Language Models

Authors Xiaohan Xu, Ming Li, Chongyang Tao, Tao Shen, Reynold Cheng, Jinyang Li, Can Xu, Dacheng Tao, Tianyi Zhou

In the era of Large Language Models (LLMs), Knowledge Distillation (KD) emerges as a pivotal methodology for transferring advanced capabilities from leading proprietary LLMs, such as GPT-4, to their open-source counterparts like LLaMA and Mistral. Additionally, as open-source LLMs flourish, KD plays a crucial role in both compressing these models, and facilitating their self-improvement by employing themselves as teachers. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of KD's role within the realm of LLM, highlighting its critical function in imparting advanced knowledge to smaller models and its utility in model compression and self-improvement. Our survey is meticulously structured around three foundational pillars: \textit{algorithm}, \textit{skill}, and \textit{verticalization} -- providing a comprehensive examination of KD mechanisms, the enhancement of specific cognitive abilities, and their practical implications across diverse fields. Crucially, the survey navigates the intricate interplay between data augmentation (DA) and KD, illustrating how DA emerges as a powerful paradigm within the KD framework to bolster LLMs' performance. By leveraging DA to generate context-rich, skill-specific training data, KD transcends traditional boundaries, enabling open-source models to approximate the contextual adeptness, ethical alignment, and deep semantic insights characteristic of their proprietary counterparts. This work aims to provide an insightful guide for researchers and practitioners, offering a detailed overview of current methodologies in KD and proposing future research directions. Importantly, we firmly advocate for compliance with the legal terms that regulate the use of LLMs, ensuring ethical and lawful application of KD of LLMs. An associated Github repository is available at